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Timeline of Rescue in the Holocaust - Part 4

1914-1939          1940-1941          1942-1943          1944-Present

1944
In 1944, more than 600,000 European Jews will be murdered.
 
Early in 1944, US Ambassador Laurence Steinhardt manages to have the Turkish government intercede on behalf of ten thousand Turkish Jews living in France.  Steinhardt uses his good relationship with Turkish foreign minister Noman Menenencioglu in helping to untangle bureaucratic rules that prevented Jews from passing through Turkey as an escape route.  Hirschmann and Steinhardt are able to get Turkish official in charge of visas, Kemel Aziz Payman, to liberalize some of the Turkish immigration laws.  The World Jewish Congress estimates that by the end of the 1944, 14,164 Jews escaped through Turkey.  Many more, however, entered Turkey illegally through Romania.
 
The Representative Council of French Jewry (Conseil Représentatif des Juifs de France; CRIF) is founded to coordinate rescue activities among Jewish groups.  They work with the Armée Juive to arrange rescue of Jews through Spain.  They also participate with the French underground, both in the north and the south.
 
Dr. Hans Georg Calmeyer, a lawyer serving in the German embassy in Holland, saves many Jews by having them classified as Aryan.
 
A national underground organization in the Netherlands is set up to support Jews in hiding in Holland.
 
José Rojas, Spanish Minister in Ankara, is directly responsible for the evacuation of 65 Jews to Spain.
 
Consul General Rives Childs, head of the US legation in Tangier, Morocco, makes connections with the Spanish authorities in Madrid and Morocco and helps save more than 1,200 Jews.  He persuades Spanish authorities to issue visas to Jewish refugees and to provide access to Spanish safe houses until they can emigrate.
 
The Mexican and Brazilian diplomatic delegations, held in Bad Godesberg, Germany, are released and repatriated in a prisoner exchange with Germany.
 
When Gilberto Bosques returns to Mexico City, he is greeted by thousands of cheering refugees who had received his life-saving visas.  Bosques then serves on the commission of the Secretary of Foreign Relations.
 
January 14, 1944
Soviet Army launches a major offensive against the German siege of Leningrad. 
 
January 16, 1944
US Treasury Secretary Henry Morgenthau and Treasury Department officials meet with President Roosevelt and present to him a report on the State Department’s suppression of information on the murder of the Jews of Europe.  In his report, renamed Personal Report to the President, Morgenthau states that the State Department:
Utterly failed to prevent the extermination of Jews in German-controlled Europe…
Hid their gross procrastination behind such window dressing as “intergovernmental organizations to survey the whole refugee problem…”
“The matter of rescuing the Jews from extermination is a trust too great to remain in the hands of men who are indifferent, callous, perhaps even hostile.”
 
January 22, 1944
British and US Allied forces land at Anzio, Italy, southeast of Rome.  The invasion beachhead is sealed off by German forces.
 
President Roosevelt establishes the War Refugee Board (WRB) in response to the report by Morgenthau and the Treasury Department regarding the failure of the US State Department to take significant action to protect Jews from mass murder.  The WRB is put under the administration of Henry Morgenthau and the Treasury Department.  It is charged with “taking all measures within its power to rescue the victims of enemy oppression who are in imminent danger of death.”  John Pehle, of the Treasury Department, is appointed Director of the WRB.  He has 30 employees.  The US government appropriates one million dollars for the operation of this new agency.  The vast majority of funds for operating the WRB will come from Jewish rescue and relief agencies, including the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (JDC) and the Hebrew Immigration Aid and Sheltering Society (HIAS).
 
Raoul Wallenberg is later selected for a mission representing the War Refugee Board to protect Hungarian Jews from deportation.
 
Notable employees of the War Refugee Board include Josiah E. DuBois and Randolph Paul (headquarters), Ira Hirschmann (Turkey), Roswell McClelland (Switzerland), Iver Olson (Sweden), Leonard Ackermann (North Africa and Italy).
 
In joint operations between the World Jewish Congress, the Joint Distribution Committee, and the War Refugee Board, between October 1943 and October 1944, 1,350 children and adolescents escaped to Switzerland, 770 children reached Spain with 200 parents, 700 children were hidden in Vichy France along with 4,000-5,000 adults.  During this period, Lisbon was a center of false papers, including baptismal certificates, birth certificates and legitimate and illegitimate passports, visas and affidavits.  By the end of the war, hundreds of thousands of Jews and other refugees escaped through Lisbon.
 
Statistics will later indicate that the War Refugee Board was successful in saving as many as 200,000 Jews in Eastern Europe.
 
January 27, 1944
The siege of Leningrad is broken, after more than 900 days and one million civilian deaths.
 
January 31, 1944
The National Committee Against Nazi Persecution and Extermination of Jews is organized.  It is headed by Supreme Court Justice Frank Murphy and includes Wendell Wilkie, Vice President Henry A. Wallis, and other prominent members of the Roosevelt administration.
 
February 1944
Jean Marie Musy, Former President of the Swiss Council, arranges with SS officials for the rescue and transportation of 1,200 Jews in Theresienstadt concentration camp to safety in Switzerland.
 
February 2, 1944
The WRB proposes that the US State Department urge Spain to remove restrictions on refugees entering its territory.  The US ambassador to Spain refuses to implement the plan.
 
February 10, 1944
Greek Jews from Salonika in Bergen-Belsen concentration camp who hold Spanish citizenship are repatriated to Spain.  This is largely due to the work of Spanish diplomat Radigales.
 
February 12, 1944
Ira Hirschmann, appointed a War Refugee Board representative, is assigned to Ankara, Turkey.  He works closely with Ambassador Steinhardt in the rescue of thousands of Jews.  Hirschmann effectively streamlines the procedure by which refugees escape through Turkey.  Hirschmann actively publicizes the Turkish rescue operation and Steinhardt’s role in it.  In addition, Hirschmann negotiates with the Romanian ambassador in Turkey, Alexander Cretzianu, for the rescue and rehabilitation of 48,000 Jewish survivors of concentration camps in Transnistria.
 
February 14, 1944
Josef Winniger, an officer in the German intelligence, tells Jewish leaders in Budapest of a plan for German occupation of Hungary.
 
Under pressure from the Allies, Romanian leader Ion Antonescu agrees to return Jewish deportees to Romania from Transnistria.
 
February 19-26, 1944
German Luftwaffe carries out heavy raids against London.  It is known as the “Little Blitz.”
 
March 1944
War Refugee Board representative in Turkey, Ira Hirschmann, persuades the Romanian ambassador to Turkey, Alexander Cretzianu, to persuade the Romanian government to transfer 48,000 Jews to the interior of the country, thus saving their lives.
 
March 6, 1944
US Army Air Force (AAF) begins major daylight bombing of Berlin.
 
March 15, 1944
Soviet Army begins liberation of Transnistria.
 
March 19, 1944
Germany occupies Hungary and immediately implements anti-Jewish decrees; places the Hungarian government at the disposal of Adolf Eichmann, architect of the Final Solution.  Consul Lutz begins to issue thousands of additional Schutzpässe (protective letters).  These Swiss documents are in fact honored by German SS authorities.  Lutz appeals to the other neutral legations in Budapest, including Sweden, Spain, Portugal and the Vatican, for a united front against the deportations of the Hungarian Jews.
 
March 20, 1944
Eichmann orders the establishment of Judenrat (Jewish councils) representing Hungarian Jews.  This is a preliminary step to ghettoization and deportation to Auschwitz-Birkenau.
 
March 24, 1944
President Roosevelt sends a stern warning to Hungarian officials against harming the Jews.
 
March 1944
Miguel Angel de Muguiro, Spain’s diplomatic attaché in Budapest, is openly critical and protests Hungarian and German antisemitic policies.  Muguiro is recalled to Spain for his outspoken denunciation of the murder of Hungarian Jews.
 
Spring 1944
Swedish government accepts 160 Jewish refugees from Finland.
 
April 1944
Ira Hirschmann’s activities with Steinhardt to rescue Eastern European Jews appear in major news articles throughout the world.  This publicity helps the War Refugee Board promote its future rescue activities.
 
The SS in France conduct arrests without the help of French police.  As a result, the arrests are way below German anticipated quotas.
 
The Polish government in exile in London appoints a Council for the Rescue of the Jewish Population.  It operates until the summer of 1945.
 
International Red Cross representative in Romania Charles Kolb attempts to organize the relief and rescue of Jews from Romania to the Black Sea, to Turkey and then to Palestine.  He is aided by the Swiss Minister in Romania, Rene de Weck and Swiss consular officer Hans Keller, the Romanian Red Cross and representatives of the War Refugee Board.
 
April 2, 1944
Soviet Army in Ukraine crosses into Romania.
 
April 5, 1944
Jews of Hungary forced to wear the star; Jewish businesses and bank accounts confiscated; Jews placed in ghettoes.
 
Joel Brand and Rudolph Kasztner, of the Rescue and Relief Committee in Budapest, meet with SS with a plan to ransom Jews from deportation.  This plan ultimately fails.
 
April 7, 1944
Two Jewish prisoners, Alfred Wetzler and Rudolf Vrba, escape Auschwitz and reach Slovakia with detailed information about the mass murder of Jews in the camp.  Their report, called the Auschwitz Protocols, (supplemented by information brought by two more escapees) reaches the free world in June.
 
April 11-18, 1944
The Allied forces in Italy break through the major German defensive line at Monte Cassino.  This enables Allied troops to break out of the Anzio beachhead.
 
April 15, 1944
Thousands of Hungarian Jews move into newly established ghettoes.
 
April 28, 1944
Deportations of Hungarian Jews from the ghettoes in the countryside to Auschwitz begin.
 
May 1944
Only one transport leaves France for Auschwitz.
 
Friedrich Born, representative of the International Committee of the Red Cross, arrives in Budapest and begins to issue thousands of Swiss Red Cross documents to protect Jewish refugees.
 
George Mandel Mantello issues thousands of El Salvador visas to Jewish refugees in Budapest through Consul Lutz’s office.  He is later arrested by Swiss police for violating Swiss neutrality.
 
May 2, 1944
First Jews deported from rural Hungary arrive in Auschwitz.
 
May 15-July 9, 1944
More than 438,000 Hungarian Jews from the countryside are deported to Auschwitz-Birkenau, where most of them are murdered on arrival.  It takes 148 trains to carry them there.
 
May 15, 1944
Dean of the diplomatic corps in Budapest and Papal Nuncio Angelo Rotta condemns the deportation of Jews.
 
May 17, 1944
Assembly of Reform Churches in Hungary protest the treatment and deportations of Hungarian Jews.
 
May 27, 1944
Two additional Jewish prisoners escape from Auschwitz.  They are Czeslan Mordowicz and Arnost Rosin.  They report on the murder in the death camp to members of the Working Group in Slovakia.
 
June 2, 1944
Chairman of the Jewish Rescue Committee of the Jewish Agency requests bombing of the rail lines to the Auschwitz death camp.
 
June 3, 1944
German troops withdraw from Rome, declaring it an open city.
 
June 4, 1944
The 5th US Army, commanded by General Mark Clark, liberates Rome.
 
June 6, 1944
D-Day: Operation Overlord is launched.  Allied invasion at Normandy, in northwestern France, opens second front.  Seven Allied divisions attack in the largest amphibious operation in history.  The invasion involves more than 4,000 ships and 1,000 transport planes.
 
Deportations from France are halted.  Himmler and Eichmann consider the deportation from France to be a failure.  Nearly 80% of French Jews survive.
 
June 7, 1944
The first part of the deportation and murder of Hungarian Jews is complete.  290,000 Jews have been killed in 23 days.
 
June 11, 1944
Dr. Waldemar Langlet, Swedish Red Cross delegate in Budapest, Hungary, and his wife Nina Langlet along with his assistant, Alexander Kasser, launch a humanitarian campaign to issue Swedish Red Cross protective passes to Hungarian Jews.
 
June 13, 1944
Germany launches secret weapon called the V-1 (Vergeltungswaffen [vengeance weapon]).  This is an unmanned flying bomb that uses jet technology.  It is launched from mainland France to bomb English cities.
 
June 24, 1944
Jews in Budapest ordered to wear the yellow Star of David.
 
June 25, 1944
Pope Pius XII sends telegram to Hungarian Regent Horthy to stop persecution of “a large segment of the Hungarian people because of their race.”  The Pope does not specifically mention Jews.
 
June 25-28, 1944
Negotiations with SS officials result in 21,000 Jews from southern and southeastern Hungary, including the areas of Baja Debrecen and Szeged, being transferred to Strasshoff, Austria, where they survive the war.
 
June 27, 1944
US government issues warning to Hungarian government and people regarding treatment of Hungarian Jews.
 
June 29, 1944
US War Department refuses request to bomb Auschwitz.  The request is denied on the grounds that it would ostensibly divert resources needed in order to win the war.  It is later discovered that US Air Force bombing raids routinely flew over the Auschwitz death camp.
 
July 3, 1944
Soviet Army retakes Minsk from the German Army.
 
July 4, 1944
The Soviet Army reaches the 1939 Polish-USSR border.
 
July 1944
The War Refugee Board organizes the establishment of a temporary safe haven for more than 1,000 Jewish refugees.  It is established in an old Army base in Oswego, New York.
 
The Archbishop of Canterbury in England appeals to Hungarian government to stop deportation of Jews.
 
July 7, 1944
Hungarian Regent Miklós Horthy reassumes power and temporarily halts deportation of Jews.  There are 300,000 Jews left in Hungary, 170,000 in and around Budapest.  They are concentrated into two ghettoes.  Lutz and other neutral diplomats place Jews under their diplomatic protection in over 100 safe houses.  Nazi and Arrow Cross gangs continue to raid and murder in these areas.
 
July 8, 1944
The Kovno ghetto is liquidated.  2,000 Jews are killed and 4,000 deported to Germany.
 
July 9, 1944
The Allied Armies capture the city of Caen in Normandy, France.
 
Swedish diplomat Raoul Wallenberg arrives in Budapest.  He is employed by the War Refugee Board of the US Treasury Department.  His mission is to save as many Jews as possible.
 
July 12, 1944
Don Angel Sans Briz, Minister (Ambassador) of Spain stationed in Budapest, issues 500 visas to Budapest Jews providing them protection from deportation and death marches.  Also rents buildings that become protected by the Spanish legation.
 
July 13, 1944
Vilna is liberated by the Red Army.
 
July 18, 1944
Horthy announces deportation of Jews will be halted in Hungary.
 
Japanese Prime Minister Hideki Tojo resigns after the defeat of the Japanese army by US forces on the Island of Saipan.
 
July 19, 1944
Cardinal Angelo Roncalli, Vatican Nuncio in Turkey (future Pope John XXIII) appeals to Hungarian Regent Horthy on behalf of 5,000 Hungarian Jews with Palestine visas.  Roncalli provides Vatican certificates for Jews in hiding.  Roncalli works closely with members of the Yishuv rescue committee in Turkey, including Ira Hirschmann and Joel Brand.
 
July 20, 1944
Attempted assassination of Hitler by opposition military officers at his headquarters in Rastenberg fails.  In reprisal, thousands of Germans are murdered.
 
July 22, 1944
The Soviet Army captures Lublin, Poland.  They liberate the German death camp of Majdanek, near Lublin.
 
July 28, 1944
The Soviet Army recaptures the city of Brest-Litovsk on the Polish-Soviet border.  This Soviet offensive has virtually annihilated the army of German Field Marshal Ernst Busch.
 
July 1944
Turkish Consul General Selahattin Ülkümen intercedes on behalf of Jewish Turkish nationals who are being deported from the island of Rhodes.   More than 40 Jewish families were spared deportation to Auschwitz.  In retaliation, the Nazis bombed the Turkish embassy, fatally wounding Ülkümen’s wife.
 
August 1-October 2, 1944
Polish resistance army in Warsaw begins actions against the German occupation.  The Soviet Army outside the city fails to come to their aid.
 
August 14, 1944
Operation Anvil.  Allied forces land on the south coast of France.  They quickly advance 20 miles on the first day.
 
August 17, 1944
US forces break out of the German defenses in western Normandy. 
 
August 21, 1944
The diplomatic legations in Budapest of Switzerland, Sweden, Portugal, Spain, the Vatican and the Red Cross protest the resumption of deportations of Jews to Auschwitz.  The diplomats from these legations were active in saving Jews from deportation to Auschwitz and the death marches.  They all issued protective papers, documents, and other forms of identification.  They housed, fed and provided medical care for more than 100,000 Jews in Budapest.  They set up apartments and homes as protected houses that were under the protection of the various legations.  The following diplomats were active in saving Jews.  Sweden: Carl Ivan Danielsson, Per Anger, Lars Berg, Raoul Wallenberg, Göte Carlsson, Dénes von Mezey.  Swedish Red Cross: Sandor Kasze-Kasser, Dr. Valdemar Langlet and Nina Langlet, Asta Nilsson.  Switzerland: Dr. Harald Feller, Maximillian Jaeger, Charles Lutz and Gertrud Lutz, Peter Zürcher, Ernst Vonrufs, Franz Bischof, Ladislaus Kluger.  Swiss Red Cross: Jean de Bavier, Friedrich Born, Dr. Robert Schirmer, Hans Weyermann, Dr. Gyorgy Gergely.  Vatican: Monsignor Angelo Rotta, Father Gennaro Verolino, Father Köhler (volunteer).  Portugal: Carlos de Liz-Texeira Branquinho, Dr. Carlos Almeida Afonseca de Sampayo Garrido, Gyula Gulden, Count Ferenc Pongrácz.  Spain: Miguel Angel de Muguiro, Don Angel Sanz-Briz, Giorgio Perlasca.  Poland: Henryk Slawik, Zimmerman.  Romania: Florian Manoliu.  Turkey: Abdülhalat Birden, Pertev Sevki Kantimir.  Argentina: Alberto Bafico.  Slovakia: Dr. Spisiak.  International Red Cross:  Sándor Újváry.  Hungarian Red Cross: Sarolta Lukács.  Germany: Gerhart Feine.
 
August 23, 1944
Horthy informs Eichmann that he will not cooperate with the deportation of Hungarian Jews.
 
August 24-25, 1944
Paris is liberated by Allied forces.  The French forces, led by de Gaulle, lead the victory procession.
 
August 25, 1944
Himmler orders the halt of deportations from Budapest.
 
August 28-29, 1944
The Slovak National Uprising breaks out.  2,000 Jews take part; 269 are killed.
 
August 31, 1944
Soviet Army enters Bucharest, Romania.
 
Fall 1944
The Working Group in Slovakia comes up with a major proposal to rescue Jews.  It is called the Europa Plan.  The Plan calls for bribing SS officials to stop the deportations in Central and Eastern Europe.  They negotiate with Alois Brunner and Kurt Becher.  Gisi Fleischmann and Rabbi Dov Weissmandel are credited with devising this plan.  It ultimately fails.
 
September 3, 1944
Brussels is liberated by British forces.  More than 20,000 Jews remain alive; many had been in hiding.
 
Last deportation from the Westerbork transit camp.
 
As a result of a suggestion by Winston Churchill’s son Randolph, evacuation begins by air of 650 German, Austrian and Czech Jews from areas of Yugoslavia to Bari in Allied occupied Italy.
 
September 4, 1944
Finland surrenders to the Soviet Union.
 
British capture Antwerp, Belgium, and secure the port.
 
September 5, 1944
A new Slovak government is formed under Dr. Stefan Tiso (nephew of former president).
 
Soviet Union declares war on Bulgaria.
 
September 8, 1944
Bulgaria changes sides and declares war on Germany.
 
The first V-2, German-built rocket, is launched against London.  V-2s are built by Jewish slave laborers in the Dora-Nordhausen concentration camp.
 
September 11-16, 1944
The Octagon Conference is held in Quebec, Canada, between Roosevelt and Churchill.  They plan the postwar occupation and demilitarization of Germany.
 
September 12, 1944
Soviet Army begins offensive on Budapest, Hungary.
 
September 16, 1944
Bulgaria surrenders to the Soviet Army.
 
September 17-18, 1944
Military operation called Market Garden is launched in the Netherlands and Germany by British and US divisions.
 
September 19, 1944
Germany disbands Danish political parties and ends Danish general strike.
 
September 20, 1944
Monsignor Angelo Roncalli sends protest about deportations to Dr. Stefan Tiso.
 
September 25, 1944
Hitler calls up remaining men between 16 and 60 in Germany for military service in the Volkssturm [people’s home army].  This is a last desperate attempt to defend the German homeland.
 
September 28, 1944
Members of the Working Group in Slovakia, including Gisi Fleischmann, are arrested by the SS.
 
September 29, 1944
Soviet Army invades German occupied Yugoslavia.
 
September 1944
Slovak National Uprising is suppressed by the German army.
 
October 1944
Gisi Fleischmann is deported to and murdered in the Auschwitz death camp.
 
International Red Cross representative Georges Dunand arrives in Slovakia and intervenes on behalf of Jews.  He works closely with Jurag Revesz, a Jewish youth leader.
 
October 2, 1944
International Committee of the Red Cross, under pressure, finally makes official inquiry to Germany on the status of all foreign prisoners in Germany and German-occupied territories.
 
The Polish resistance forces in Warsaw end the uprising against the German occupiers.  The nearby Soviet forces refuse to aid the Poles in their uprising.  250,000 Poles are killed.
 
October 4, 1944
The British Army lands in German occupied Greece.
 
October 5, 1944
The British Colonial Office allows only 10,300 Jews to immigrate to Palestine.  This will be at the rate of only 1,500 per month.  This order rescinds an original offer made to the Jewish Agency of Palestine, which would originally allow all Jews reaching Turkey to enter Palestine.
 
October 6, 1944
Soviet Army enters Hungary and Czechoslovakia.
 
October 6-7, 1944
Jewish Sonderkommando [those working in the gas chambers and crematoria] managed to smuggle in gunpowder and blow up one of the gas chambers at Birkenau.
 
October 9, 1945
Pierre Laval, the Prime Minister of France in Vichy, is convicted in a French court of treason.  He is sentenced to death.
 
October 9-19, 1944
Churchill, Stalin and Averell Harriman of the US, meet at the Moscow Conference in the Soviet Union.  They discuss the war.
 
October 13, 1944
Soviet army liberates Rega, Latvia.
 
October 14, 1944
British Army liberates Athens.
 
German armored division enters and occupies Budapest.  Hungarian Prime Minister Lakatos is removed.  Ferenc Szálazi, head of the Hungarian fascist Arrow Cross party, is appointed Prime Minister.
 
War Refugee Board hears rumors of Jews being concentrated outside of Budapest for deportation.  The WRB warns the Arrow Cross, “None who participate in these acts of savagery shall go unpunished…All who share the guilt shall share the punishment.”
 
October 15, 1944
Admiral Horthy tries to sue for peace with Soviet Union.  Horthy is soon arrested by Nazi puppet government.  Hungarian Arrow Cross, under Ferenc Szálasi, and Nazis introduce new reign of terror and murder thousands of Budapest Jews.  Death marches to Austria are instituted.  Lutz, Wallenberg, Sanz-Briz, Perlasca, Born, Rotta and many other neutral diplomats and their helpers succeed in stopping death marches and protecting their safe houses.  By the end of the war, the courageous diplomats are able to save the lives of more than 100,000 Jews in Budapest.
 
Dr. Sampayo Garrido, Portuguese Chargé d’Affaires in Budapest, and later his replacement, Carlos Branquinho, issue more than 800 protective passes and establish safe houses to shelter Jews.
 
The Relief and Rescue Committee of Budapest (Va’ada), headed by Otto Komoly, helps in the relieve efforts of Jews in the Budapest ghettoes.  5,000 Jewish children are housed in specially designated buildings.
 
October 20, 1944
SS troops under Eichmann round up 27,000 Jews in Hungary who were marched to the Austrian border, bound for deportation.  Raoul Wallenberg and other neutral diplomats in Budapest follow behind these death marches and manage to rescue thousands of people. 
 
Tito’s partisans liberate Belgrade, Yugoslavia.
 
October 23, 1944
Adolf Eichmann leaves Budapest along with his SS troops.
 
October 27, 1944
Hungarian Regent Horthy resigns.
 
October 31, 1944
Himmler orders the murder of Jews at Auschwitz-Birkenau to cease.  The SS begin dismantling the camp.
 
October 1944
Henryk Slawik, the Polish Chargé d’Affaires in Budapest, issued thousands of documents certifying that Polish Jewish refugees were Christian.  Slawik was caught and deported to Mauthausen, where he was killed.
 
An Italian refugee living in Budapest, Giorgio Perlasca, becomes a Spanish citizen and volunteers with Minister Sans-Briz in mission to protect Jews in Budapest.  By November, 3,000 Jews received Spanish protection in eight safe houses.
 
Georges Dunand, delegate of the International Committee of the Red Cross, arrives in Slovakia with money from the Joint Distribution Committee (JCD) to save Jews.  Dunand distributes these much-needed funds to refugees and helps a number of Jews escape deportation.
 
November 1944
Roosevelt elected President of the US for a fourth term.
 
November 4, 1944
Jewish, Nazi and other allied leaders meet in Switzerland in a proposed rescue effort of Hungarian Jews.
 
November 8, 1944
Beginning of a new round of death marches of approximately 40,000 Jews from Budapest to Austria.  Himmler orders the end of the death marches in mid-November.  Eichmann is summoned to Berlin and is confronted by Himmler, who orders him to stop all murder actions.  Himmler orders all killing in the extermination camps to cease.
 
German Consul Gerhard Feine, Director of the Jewish Department of the German Plenipotentiary of Budapest, secretly informs Swiss Consul Lutz of Veesenmayer’s and Eichmann’s plans to deport and murder the Jews of Budapest.
 
November 10, 1944
Refusing to recognize the Hungarian fascist Arrow Cross regime, the Swiss government recalls head of legation Maximilian Jaeger from Budapest.  As Lutz’s supervisor, Jaeger has been active until then in protesting the deportation of Jews to Auschwitz.
 
November 11, 1944
British and Greek Armies complete the liberation of Greece. 
 
November 13, 1944
In Budapest, a ghetto is set up for Jews without protection of neutral nations.
 
November 23-27, 1944
Swiss diplomats Leopold Breszlauer and Ladislaus Kluger issue 300 protective papers to Hungarian Jews at the Austro-Hungarian border.
 
November 26-29, 1944
Pest ghetto, with 63,000 Jews, is established.  The ghetto contains 293 houses and apartments, with up to 14 persons per room.
 
December 1944
Spanish Minister Don Angel Sans-Briz leaves Budapest and is recalled to Spain.  Perlasca appoints himself Spanish “Ambassador” and continues to issue Spanish protective passes through the end of the war.  The Nazis honor his protective papers.
 
Dr. Harald Feller assumes post as Swiss Interim Chargé d’Affaires to Budapest, replacing Maximilian Jaeger.  Feller works closely in support of Consul Lutz’s rescue activities.  He personally hides 32 Jews in his own home.
 
Under pressure from the Allies and the Red Cross, SS General Kurt Becher allows the Allies and relief agencies to supply medical and food supplies to inmates in concentration camps.
 
December 6, 1944
Saly Mayer, the Swiss representative of the Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, arranges for the transport of 1,355 Orthodox Jewish refugees from the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp to Basel, Switzerland.
 
December 16, 1944
German Army launches major offensive against the Allied Armies in the Ardennes Forest in Belgium.  It is called the Battle of the Bulge.
 
December 26, 1944
The US Third Army, under General Patton, liberates trapped US forces in the Belgian town of Bastogne.
 
The Soviet Army completes the encirclement of Budapest.
 
1945
The Central Registry of War Criminals and Security Suspects is created by the Supreme Allied Headquarters.  Its purpose is to catch and prosecute Nazi war criminals.
 
January 1, 1945
Carl Burkhardt becomes head of the International Committee of the Red Cross. 
 
January 1-16, 1945
By the beginning of 1945, the German Ardennes offensive, called the “Battle of the Bulge,” for which the Nazi leadership had risked so much, fails.
 
January 5, 1945
Five thousand Jews are taken from Swedish protective houses and moved to the central Pest ghetto.
 
January 7, 1945
Arrow Cross attacks Swedish protected houses on Jokai Street, Pest ghetto.
 
January 9, 1945
US Army, under General MacArthur, lands in Luzon, Philippine Islands.
 
January 1945
Peter Zürcher and Ernst Vonrufs, acting representatives of Swiss interests in Budapest, along with Swedish diplomat Raoul Wallenberg, thwart Nazi plans to blow up the Pest ghetto with 70,000 Jewish inhabitants.
 
January 16, 1945
Soviets liberate Budapest.
 
January 17, 1945
Auschwitz-Birkenau is closed and evacuated, 66,000 prisoners are taken away on a series of death marches.
 
The Soviet Army enters and liberates Warsaw, Poland.  Warsaw is completely destroyed.
 
Wallenberg was last seen in the company of Soviet soldiers; he said: “I do not know whether I am a guest of the Soviets or their prisoner;” he has not been seen as a free man since.
 
January 18, 1945
Soviet Army liberates Pest.
 
January 19, 1945
Soviet Army liberates Lodz, Poland.
 
January 27, 1945
Soviet troops enter and liberate Auschwitz concentration camp.  Seven thousand remaining prisoners are free.
 
February 1945
The German troops in Budapest surrender to Marshall Malinovsky of the Soviet Army.
 
February 1, 1945
On Himmler’s orders, 2,700 Jews are taken from Bergen-Belsen concentration camp and sent to Switzerland. 
 
February 3, 1945
US Army begins the liberation of Manila in the Philippines.
 
February 4-11, 1945
An Allied conference is held at Yalta in the Russian Ukraine between Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin.  It defines the postwar spheres of influence in Europe and Germany.
 
February 5, 1945
International Committee of the Red Cross arranges for small transport of Jews from Terezin KZ to Switzerland.
 
February 11, 1945
American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee representative Saly Mayer meets with SS officer Kurt Becker to arrange for the release of Jews from concentration camps.  1,691 Jews are rescued from Hungary and brought to Switzerland.  17,000 other Jews are later rescued under these negotiations.
 
February 13, 1945
German Army surrenders in Budapest.
 
February 13-15, 1945
The German city of Dresden is firebombed by the British and US air forces.  60,000 are killed.
 
February 19, 1945
Count Folke Bernadotte, head of the Swedish Red Cross operating in Germany and nephew of King Carl Gustav V of Sweden, negotiates with SS commander Heinrich Himmler and General Walter Schellenberg, Chief of Himmler’s Office of Information, for the release of thousands of Scandinavians held in Nazi concentration camps.  An agreement is made to release thousands of prisoners and Jewish inmates.  The Swedish and Danish Red Cross are allowed to supply food and medicine to the inmates of the camps.  Iver Olson of the War Refugee Board in Stockholm is also involved in these negotiations.
 
February 23, 1945
Turkey declares war on Germany.
 
February 1945
Soviets arrest Swiss Minister Dr. Harald Feller and send him to Moscow, where he is imprisoned for more than a year in the Lubianca prison.
 
March 4, 1945
Finland declares war on Germany.
 
March 5, 1945
The Ninth US Army reaches the Rhine River near Düsseldorf.
 
March 12, 1945
Head of the International Committee for the Red Cross Carl Burckhardt meets with SS RSHA head Ernst Kaltenbrunner at Swiss border to plan have the Red Cross take over the administration and supervision of the concentration camps.
 
March 17, 1945
New Hungarian provisional government rescinds anti-Jewish laws.
 
March 19, 1945
Hitler issues the Nero Order (Nero-Befehl).  This orders German troops to leave German cities ruined for advancing troops.
 
March 22, 1945
US Army crosses the Rhine River into Germany at Oppenheim.
 
April 1, 1945
US Army lands on the island of Okinawa, in the Pacific.
 
April 4, 1945
German Army withdraws from Hungary.
 
Ohrdruf concentration camp is liberated by the US Army.
 
April 9, 1945
New Allied offensive in Italy begins.  It is called the Gothic Line campaign.
 
SS begins evacuating prisoners from Mauthausen.
 
April 10, 1945
US Army captures Hanover, Germany.
 
April 11, 1945
US troops reach the Elbe River, near Wittenberg.
 
Buchenwald concentration camp is liberated by the US Army.
 
April 12, 1945
US President Franklin Roosevelt dies.  Harry Truman becomes the new President.
 
Generals Eisenhower, Bradley and Patton visit the liberated Ohrdruf camp.  Eisenhower orders troops and local Germans to witness the atrocities.  Eisenhower also encourages the press to cover the liberation of the camps.
 
April 13, 1945
Soviet Army enters and liberates Vienna, Austria.
 
April 15, 1945
British soldiers liberate Bergen-Belsen concentration camp.
 
Red Cross transfers 413 Danish Jews from Czechoslovakia to Sweden.
 
April 16, 1945
The Soviet Army launches its last assault on Berlin.
 
April 19, 1945
Danish Red Cross volunteers help with the release of surviving inmates at the Neuengamme concentration camp, who are brought safely to Denmark.
 
April 20, 1945
Himmler meets with Swedish diplomat Norbert Masur to arrange to free 7,000 women from Ravensbrück.  Half of them are Jewish.
 
April 1945
Himmler orders the evacuation of thousands of Jews in deadly death marches away from the concentration camps.
 
Bernadotte’s negotiations with Himmler are successful.  He secures the release of over 400 Danish Jews imprisoned in Theresienstadt.  Later, he arranges for the release of thousands of women from the Ravensbrück and Bergen Belsen concentration camps.  He arranges for busses, converted to ambulances, known as the “white busses,” to take them from the camps.  The refugees are transported safely to Sweden.
 
US and British troops liberate the concentration camps at Buchenwald, Dachau, Nordhausen, Bergen-Belsen and other camps.
 
April 23, 1945
US Army liberates Flossenberg concentration camp.
 
April 25, 1945
US and Soviet troops link up at Torgau, Germany, on the Elbe River.
 
The United Nations meeting in San Francisco, California, drafts charter of the United Nations.
 
April 27, 1945
Sachsenhausen concentration camp is liberated by the Soviet Army.
 
The Landsberg-Kaufering concentration camps are liberated by the 36th Division of the US Army.
 
April 28, 1945
Italian partisans kill Mussolini as he tries to escape to Switzerland.
 
April 29, 1945
The German Army unconditionally surrenders to the Allies in Italy.
 
The Soviet Army occupies Slovakia.
 
In the day before he commits suicide, Hitler dictates his last will and testament.  In it, he exhorts “the government and the people to uphold the race laws to limit and to resist mercilessly the poisoners of all nations, international Jewry.”
 
Hitler appoints Admiral Karl Donitz to be his successor.
 
Dachau concentration camp is liberated by the 42nd and 45th US Divisions of the 7th US Army.
 
April 30, 1945
Hitler commits suicide in his bunker in Berlin.
 
US Army captures Munich, Germany.
 
The Soviet Army captures the old German Reichstag building in Berlin.
 
The Soviet Army liberates Ravensbrück concentration camp.  They find 3,500 women there.
 
May 1, 1945
The Soviet Army liberates the Stutthof concentration camp in Poland.
 
May 2, 1945
Berlin falls to the Soviet Army.  The German troops defending Berlin surrender.
 
May 4, 1945
German forces surrender to British Commander Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery.
 
The German occupying forces in the Netherlands and Denmark surrender.
 
Soviet Army liberates concentration camp in Oranienberg.
 
The Red Cross takes over concentration camp at Theresienstadt.
 
May 5, 1945
Mauthausen concentration camp is liberated by the US Eleventh Armored Division.
 
The German Army in Norway surrenders.
 
The 71st Division of the US Army liberates the Gunskirchen concentration camp in Austria.
 
May 6, 1945
The Eleventh Armored Division of the US Army liberates the Ebensee concentration camp in Austria.
 
May 8, 1945
Victory in Europe Day (V-E Day): German General Alfred Jodl surrenders at Eisenhower’s headquarters, the end of the Third Reich.
 
The German army in northeast Germany surrenders to Field Marshal Montgomery.
 
55 million people are dead.  Nearly half are civilians.
 
More than six million Jews and five million others have been murdered.  Two thirds of the Jewish population of Europe is murdered.  90% of the Jewish Polish population has been murdered.  However, in more than half of the countries in Europe, 50% or more of the population of Jews survives.  These include the countries of Denmark, Bulgaria, Italy, France, Germany and Austria.
 
The Soviet Army liberates Grossrosen concentration camp.
 
The US Army captures Hermann Göring.
 
Jewish returnees to Denmark have their property, including houses, businesses and money, returned to them.  All Jews are granted the sum of $4,505 Kroner to help rebuild their lives.
 
May 9, 1945
Prague, Czechoslovakia, is liberated by the Soviet Army.
 
May 10, 1945
The German Army in Czechoslovakia surrenders to the Soviet Army.
 
May 23, 1945
SS chief Himmler is arrested by a British Army unit.  Later that day, he commits suicide by taking a cyanide capsule.
 
May 1945
Pio Perucchi dies at the age of 75 in Lugano, Switzerland.
 
July 16, 1945
First detonation of an atomic bomb in New Mexico.  The bomb in code-named “Trinity.”
 
July 17-August 2, 1945
A conference is convened in Potsdam, Germany, between Stalin, Churchill (Attlee), and President Truman.
 
August 6, 1945
Americans detonate atomic bomb over Hiroshima, Japan.  It destroys two-thirds of the city.
 
August 8, 1945
The victorious Allied powers meet and develop an outline for an International Military Tribunal to try German war criminals.
 
The Soviet Union declares war on Japan and invades Japanese occupied Manchuria.
 
August 9, 1945
Americans detonate atomic bomb on Nagasaki, Japan.  It destroys half of the city.
 
August 11, 1945
Anti-Jewish riots in Crackow, Poland.
 
August 12, 1945
The Soviet Army occupies Japanese-held North Korea.
 
August 13, 1945
The World Zionist Congress demands the admission of one million Jewish refugees to Palestine.
 
August 14, 1945
Japanese Emperor Hirohito accepts Allied surrender terms.  He tells his people to accept the terms and not to resist the occupation.
 
August 15, 1945
V-J Day: Victory over Japan proclaimed.
 
Marshal Philippe Pétain, former head of the Vichy government, is convicted in a French court of treason and is sentenced to death.  His sentence is later commuted to life imprisonment.
 
August 26, 1945
British Labor Party wins in a landslide. 
 
August 28, 1945
First US troops land in Japan to prepare for surrender and occupation.
 
September 2, 1945
Victory in Japan (V-J Day).  Japanese diplomats and soldiers surrender at MacArthur’s headquarters aboard the battleship Missouri in Tokyo Bay.  End of World War II.
 
More than 55 million people have been killed in the deadliest war in history.  For the first time in history, more civilians are killed than soldiers. 
 
Europe and Japan are in ruins.
 
September 20, 1945
The Jewish Agency for Palestine submits a claim against Germany for war crimes committed against the Jewish people.
 
October 9, 1945
Pierre Laval, the Prime Minister of France in Vichy, is convicted in a French court of treason.  He is sentenced to death.
 
October 24, 1945
The United Nations comes into formal existence after its charter is ratified in New York City.
 
November 1945
Former Secretary of State Cordell Hull is awarded Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts in creating the United Nations. 
 
November 13, 1945
Charles de Gaulle is elected President of France.
 
November 15 – December 14, 1945
Dachau trials are conducted at the site of the former concentration camp.  Forty former guards and administrators are tried.  Many are sentenced to death.
 
November 22, 1945 – August 31, 1946
Nazi war leaders are put on trial in Nuremberg, Germany, for crimes against humanity.  They are tried by the International Military Tribunal (IMT).  The IMT rules that obedience to superiors’ orders is insufficient defense for crimes against humanity.  The defendants include Hermann Göring, Rudolph Hess, Ernst Kaltenbrunner, Julius Streicher, Joachim von Ribbentrop, General Wilhelm Keitel, General Alfred Jodl, Albert Speer, Admiral Karl Donitz and others. They are charged with:  1) crimes against the peace, 2) war crimes, 3) crimes against humanity, and 4) conspiracy to commit any of these crimes.  The military tribunal finds 12 of the defendants guilty and sentences them to death.  Seven others receive prison terms and three are acquitted.
 
Late 1945
US diplomat Hiram Bingham resigns from US Foreign Service in protest for the US government failing to thwart Nazis’ activities in South America during and after the war.
 
1945-1950
It is estimated that 250,000-350,000 Jews are liberated from the concentration camps.  1.6 million come out of hiding.  The first wave of Jewish survivors of the Holocaust emigrate to Palestine (142,000), the United States (72,000), Canada (16,000), Belgium (8,000), and other places (10,000), including Central and South America and Australia.  A very few stay in Europe.
 
1946
The International Court of Justice is established in The Hague, The Netherlands.  It is the official judicial body of the United Nations.
 
The United Nations establishes International Refugee Organization (IRO).  It takes over from the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Agency (UNRRA).
 
April 27, 1946 – November 12, 1948
The International Military Tribunal for the Far East opens war crimes trials against members of the Japanese Imperial government and the armed forces.  The IMT indicts former war Prime Minister Tojo and 27 others.
 
April 29, 1946
US/British commission report advises against partition of the British mandate in Palestine between Jewish and Arab states.
 
May 1, 1946
The Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry recommends allowing 100,000 Jewish survivors to immigrate to Palestine.  The British government refuses the recommendation.
 
July 4, 1946
A violent attack against Jews breaks out in Kielce, Poland.  A Polish mob kills 42 Jews, including two children.  Other anti-Jewish pogroms break out across Poland.  Many Jews decide not to try to return to Poland.
 
August 13, 1946
British government opens detention camps on the island of Cypress to detain Jewish refugees who try to enter Palestine.
 
October 1, 1946
Nuremberg trial verdicts are pronounced.  Guilty:  Göring, Borman (in absentia), Ribbentrop, Kaltenbrunner, Keitel, Rosenberg, Frank, Frick, Streicher, Jodl, Sauckel – all to hang; Funk, Räder, Hess – life sentences;  Speer, Donitz, Schirach – 20 years; Von Neurath – 15 years.  Acquitted:  Fritzche, Schacht, von Poppen.
 
October 11, 1946
Nuremberg defendants are denied appeals of their convictions.
 
October 15, 1946
Göring commits suicide just before he is scheduled to be hanged.
 
October 16, 1946
Nuremberg war criminals are hanged.
 
October 25, 1946
The Nuremberg doctors trial.  23 Nazi doctors are tried for war crimes.  The charges include performing medical experiments on prisoners.
 
1946-1949
Twelve separate trials are conducted against Nazi war criminals.  185 war criminals are prosecuted.
 
1947
Belgian government institutes a law to memorialize Jewish victims of the Nazis. 
 
Chiune Sugihara is forced to resign from the Japanese Foreign Ministry because of “that incident in Lithuania.”
 
Soviet Union produces a death certificate to substantiate claim that Raoul Wallenberg died of a heart attack in Lubianca prison in 1947.  Few actually believe the authenticity of this statement.
 
The American Friends’ Service Committee (AFSC) of the Society of Friends/Quakers, receives the Nobel Peace Prize for its activities in helping refugees escape the Nazis in Europe.
 
January 4-December 4, 1947
The Nazi Judges’ Trial in Nuremberg, Germany. 
 
March 29, 1947
Rudolph Höss, former commander of the Auschwitz death camp, is sentenced to death by hanging.
 
Simon Wiesenthal founds Documentation Center of Nazi War Criminals in Linz, Austria.
 
April 16, 1947
Rudolph Höss is hanged.
 
May 8, 1947 – July 30, 1948
I. G. Farben board of directors’ trial at Nuremberg.  Of the 24 board members, 13 are convicted, 10 are acquitted, and one is not tried.
 
May 10, 1947 – February 1948
“Hostage trial” of senior German Army officers at Nuremberg.  8 are convicted, 2 acquitted, 1 commits suicide and 1 is released due to ill health.
 
July 1, 1947 – March 10, 1948
14 SS leaders are tried in Nuremberg.  13 are tried and convicted and sentenced to prison.  One is acquitted.
 
July 3, 1947 – April 10, 1948
24 senior SS and SD commanders are tried at Nuremberg.  14 sentenced to death.
 
August 16, 1947 – July 31, 1948
The Krupp trial is held.  12 Krupp officials are tried.  11 are sentenced to prison and one is acquitted.
 
November 29, 1947
The United Nations votes for partition of Palestine.  This leads to the creation of a Jewish state.
 
1948
Pope Pius XII requests mercy for Nazi war criminals condemned to death.  This appeal is turned down.
 
May 14, 1948
Britain’s mandate to govern Palestine officially expires.  The state of Israel is established.  Palestine is divided between the State of Israel and the Kingdom of Jordan.
 
May 15, 1948
The Egyptian and Jordanian armed forces invade the newly-created State of Israel.
 
May 20, 1948
United Nations Security Council appoints Folke Bernadotte to mediate between Jewish and Arab armies.  Bernadotte is able to secure a 4-week temporary truce and cease-fire.
 
September 17, 1948
UN mediator Folke Bernadotte is assassinated by Jewish resistance group called Hazit ha-Moleder [Fatherland Front] in Jerusalem.
 
December 1948
A genocide convention, enacted to react against future genocidal wars, is called by the United Nations.
 
1949
A new Geneva Convention is signed in 1949.  It establishes rules for treatment of civilians in times of war.
 
January 7, 1949
A cease-fire is signed between Arab and Israeli governments.
 
May 11, 1949
United Nations votes to admit Israel.
 
1950
The State of Israel passes the “Law of Judging Nazi Criminals and the Helpers.”  This allows the Israeli government to try former SS and Nazis.
 
June 1950
René de Weck dies in Rome at the age of 63.
 
January 12, 1951
The United Nations Genocide Convention Treaty is passed.  Article 56 of the UN charter bans murder and deportation of peoples based on racial, religious or political reasons.
 
April 12, 1951
The Israeli parliament establishes an annual commemorative memorial day to honor victims of the Holocaust.
 
September 27, 1951
German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer apologizes for the Nazi persecution and murder of Jews.  Adenauer further offers to pay reparations.
 
1952
Germany agrees to pay restitution for the persecution of Jews during World War II.
 
September 10, 1952
Luxembourg Treaty is signed by Israel and West Germany.  West Germany agrees to pay reparations in the amount of 820 million dollars.
 
1953
Establishment of a Holocaust Museum in Israel.  It is called Yad Vashem [Hebrew for place and name], the Holocaust Martyrs’ and Heroes’ Remembrance Authority.
 
The state of Israel passes a law to honor those who rescued Jews during the Holocaust; a commission was established to recognize Righteous Among the Nations, non-Jews who saved Jews during the war.
 
Georg Ferdinand Duckwitz is awarded the Cross of the Commander of the Dannebrog Order by the Danish King Frederik IX for his actions in saving Danish Jews.
 
Gilberto Bosques is appointed Mexican Ambassador Plenipotentiary to Cuba.  He becomes a lifelong mentor to Cuban President Fidel Castro and Latin American revolutionary Che Guevarra.
 
January 12, 1953
Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli is made a Cardinal by Pope Pius XII.
 
1954
Dr. Aristides de Sousa Mendes dies in poverty in a hospital for the poor in Lisbon at the age of 69.
 
Luis Martins de Souza Dantas dies in Paris, France, at the age of 78.
 
Jews under the Italian Occupation, by Leon Poliakov and Jacques Sabille, is published.  It outlines the rescue of Jews by Italian soldiers in France, Yugoslavia and Croatia.
 
February 28, 1955
Georg Ferdinand Duckwitz is appointed German Ambassador to Denmark.
 
1957
Street named after Carl Lutz in Haifa, Israel.
 
February 1957
Soviet government asserts that Raoul Wallenberg died of a heart attack in prison in 1947.  The Soviet Union produces documents to support their claim.  No major efforts by the US or Sweden to find Wallenberg are instituted.
 
March 1957
Swedish government officials announce that the search for Raoul Wallenberg is over.
 
November 6, 1957
A memorial to “Christian Heroes who helped their Jewish Brethren escape the Nazi terror” is dedicated in New York City by the Anti-Defamation League and B’nai B’rith.
 
October 8, 1958
Archbishop Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli, the Papal nuncio in Bulgaria, Greece, Turkey and France during World War II, is elected Pope.  He takes the name John XXIII.  During his term as Pope, he institutes major reforms in the Catholic Church, including the Vatican II council.  He becomes the first Pope to enter a synagogue.
 
October 1958
British diplomat in Berlin Frank Foley dies.
 
Swiss Minister in Budapest Maximilian Jaeger dies in Switzerland at the age of 74.
 
January 25, 1959
Pope John XXIII announces his intention to convene an Ecumenical Council.  It becomes known as Vatican II.
 
1959
The Jewish community of Italy gives gold medals to Christians who played important roles in rescuing Jews.  Monsignor Montini (later Pope Paul VI), head of the Holy See’s Aid Service to Refugees during the war, declines to accept a medal.  He states: “I acted in the line of duty and for that I am not entitled to a medal.”
 
1960
Pope John XXIII calls for a change in the Catholic church’s relationship with Jews.  He eliminates the phrase “perfidious Jews” from the Good Friday liturgy.  He also removes the phrase “let us pray for the unbelieving Jews.”
 
Portuguese diplomat Sampayo Garrido dies at age 77.
 
April 1960
Former SS officer responsible for the deportation of Jews to death camps, Adolf Eichmann, is captured by Israeli agents in Buenos Aires, Argentine.
 
May 1960
Adolf Eichmann trial opens in Jerusalem, Israel.
 
1961
Simon Wiesenthal reopens his Documentation Center in Vienna.
 
December 15, 1961
Adolf Eichmann is convicted by an Israeli court and sentenced to death.
 
1962
Israel’s Holocaust museum inaugurates the Avenue and Forest of the Righteous.  Carob trees are planted in honor of individuals who saved Jews during the Shoah.
 
May 31, 1962
Eichmann is hanged and his ashes are scattered in the Mediterranean.
 
October 11, 1962
Pope John XXIII opens Vatican II.  Jewish and Protestant clergy, as well as scholars, are invited as observers.
 
February 20, 1963
A play by Rolf Hochhuth entitled Der Stellvertreter [The Deputy] opens in Berlin.  The play is critical of Pope Pius XII’s silence during the Holocaust.
 
June 3, 1963
Pope John XXIII dies.
 
1963
Israel honors first of the Righteous Among the Nations.  Every person honored for saving Jews receives a tree planted in his or her name and is awarded a certificate and medal.  German businessman Oskar Schindler was the third person so honored.
 
Raoul Wallenberg awarded Righteous Among the Nations medal.
 
Red Cross representative in Budapest Friedrich Born dies in Switzerland.
 
1964
65,000 Nazi war criminals have been tried, convicted and sentenced.
 
Carl Lutz is honored as Righteous Among the Nations.
 
October 1965
Nostra Aetate [In Our Time] is approved as part of the final session of Vatican II.  It includes key statements pertaining to Jewish-Catholic relations.  The document deplores anti-Semitism and rescinds the idea that Jews are “rejected, cursed, or guilty of deicide [killing of Jesus].”
 
1965
Swedish Red Cross rescuers Dr. Valdemar and Nina Langlet are honored by Yad Vashem as Righteous Among the Nations.
 
Spanish Minister in Budapest Don Angel Sanz-Briz is designated Righteous Among the Nations by Yad Vashem.
 
June 5-10, 1967
Responding to continuing threats along its border, Israel fights Six Day War against Syria, Jordan and Egypt.  Israel occupies the West Bank and the Sinai Peninsula.
 
1967
Portuguese Consul General in Bordeaux Dr. Aristides de Sousa Mendes receives Righteous Among the Nations award from Yad Vashem.
 
Georg Ferdinand Duckwitz is appointed Staatssekretär (State Secretary), the highest civilian post in the German Foreign Ministry.  He is given this posting for life.
 
1968
The first Sugihara survivor finds Chiune Sugihara.
 
April 1970
Bruno Kreisky, an Austrian Jew, is elected Chancellor of Austria.  He is the first Jew to be elected to this high office.  Kreisky left Austria in 1938 as a refugee.
 
October 22, 1970
The American dramatic television series Holocaust is broadcast in West Germany.
 
1971
Georg Ferdinand Duckwitz and Paul Grüninger awarded Righteous Among the Nations medals.
 
1972
Former Swiss Police Captain Paul Grüninger dies at the age of 81.
 
The Bulgarian Jews and the Final Solution, 1940-1944, by Frederick B. Chary, is published.  It details the rescue of the Jews in Bulgaria.
 
1973
Ambassador Feng Shan Ho retires to San Francisco after four decades of diplomatic service for the Chinese Nationalists. He is discredited through a political vendetta by his own government and denied a pension.
 
Portuguese diplomat Carlos de Liz-Texeira Branquinho dies at the age of 71.
 
February 16, 1973
Ambassador Georg Ferdinand Duckwitz passes away in his hometown of Bremen, Germany, at the age of 68.
 
October 6, 1973
Yom Kippur War.  Syria’s military engages in surprise attack against Israel.  Its forces are turned back.
 
April 1974
Israel’s Holocaust museum holds a major conference entitled Rescue Attempts During the Holocaust.  The conference papers are published in 1977.   
 
January 1975
Vatican issues Guidelines and Suggestions for Implementing “Nostra Aetate.”
 
February 13, 1975
Swiss Vice Consul in Budapest Carl Lutz dies in Bern, Switzerland at the age of 80.
 
1975
Polish diplomat Jan Karski is honored as Righteous Among the Nations by Yad Vashem in Israel.
 
Acting Swiss diplomat in Budapest Peter Zürcher dies in Zürich at the age of 61.
 
1977
Polish diplomat Henryk Slawik is designated Righteous Among the Nations by Yad Vashem.
 
December 1977
Simon Wiesenthal Center for Holocaust Studies opens in Los Angeles.
 
1978
Presidential commission to establish an American memorial to the victims of the Holocaust is convened by Jimmy Carter.
 
1979
The Office of Special Investigations is created by the US Congress to investigate Nazi war criminals in the US.
 
1980
Swedish Ambassador Per Anger is honored as Righteous Among the Nations by the State of Israel.
 
US State Department and CIA provide records and information to Sweden regarding the Wallenberg case.
 
October 1980
US Congress passes a law creating the United States Holocaust Memorial Council for the creation of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
 
1981
US Congress and President Ronald Reagan award Raoul Wallenberg honorary citizenship.  Wallenberg is only the third person to receive this honor, after Winston Churchill and the Marquis de Lafayette.
 
A national registry of Holocaust survivors is established by US Holocaust survivors.
 
1982
Swedish Minister Carl Ivan Danielsson is designated Righteous Among the Nations by the State of Israel.
 
Swedish diplomat Lars Berg is honored as Righteous Among the Nations by the State of Israel.
 
Swiss diplomat Ernst Prodolliet is declared Righteous Among the Nations.
 
Brazilian diplomat Aracy de Carvalho-Guimaraes Rosa is honored as Righteous Among the Nations.
 
March 28, 1982
Italian Ambassador Gastone Guidotti, who helped Jews in Belgrade, Yugoslavia, during the war, passes away.
 
1984
Swiss Consul in Bregenz, Austria, Ernst Prodolliet dies at his home in Amriswil, Switzerland.
 
1985
Japanese diplomat Chiune Sugihara receives the Righteous Among the Nations award.
 
Canada awards honorary citizenship to Raoul Wallenberg.
 
Claude Lanzmans’ 9-hour documentary Shoah is broadcast worldwide.
 
The landmark book The Holocaust: A History of the Jews of Europe During the Second World War, by Sir Martin Gilbert, is published.
 
May 5-7, 1985
President Ronald Reagan visits cemetery in Bitburg, Germany, which has Waffen SS graves.  This visit is highly controversial.
 
November 1985
Vatican publishes paper on Jewish-Christian relations.  It is called “The Common Bond: Christians and Jews:  Notes for Preaching and Teaching.”  It is the first time that the Holocaust and Israel are mentioned in a Vatican document.
 
1936
Kurt Waldheim is elected Secretary General of the United Nations despite his wartime service as an officer serving with the German Army in the Balkans.  Waldheim served as an intelligence officer in an area that had numerous genocidal actions against Jews and other minorities in Yugoslavia.
 
July 31, 1986
Chiune Sugihara dies in Kamakura, Japan at age 86.
 
1987
The Italians and the Holocaust: Persecution, Rescue, Survival, by Susan Zuccotti, is published.
 
1987-88
Aristides de Sousa Mendes posthumously reinstated to the diplomatic corps in Portugal.
 
April 1987
Raoul Wallenberg monument is dedicated in Budapest, Hungary.
 
May 1987
Raoul Wallenberg receives honorary citizenship from the State of Israel.
 
June 1987
Friedrich Born receives the Righteous Among the Nations award.
 
January 12, 1988
US diplomat in Marseilles, France, Hiram “Harry” Bingham dies in Salem, Connecticut.
 
November 1988
Candido Porta dies in Switzerland at the age of 96.
 
1988
Samuel and Pearl Oliner publish The Altruistic Personality: Rescuers of Jews in Nazi Europe, their landmark study of rescuers of Jews during the Holocaust.
 
Brazilian diplomats in France Dr. Jose and Carmen Santaella are designated as Righteous among the Nations.
 
1989
Italian Giorgio Perlasca honored with the Righteous Among the Nations award.
 
October 1989
Soviet Union presents Wallenberg family his diplomatic passport and other personal belongings.
 
1990
The Soviet Union collapses.
 
East and West Germany are reunited.
 
Selahattin Ülkümen awarded Righteous Among the Nations medal.
 
Dr. Feng Shan Ho’s memoirs, “Forty Years of My Diplomatic Life” is published.  His rescue work is barely mentioned in just 70 characters.
 
May 1991
Polish President Lech Walesa apologizes for antisemitism throughout Polish history.
 
July 1991
Monument to Carl Lutz is dedicated in the former ghetto of Budapest.
 
1992
Several antisemitic incidents take place in Germany.
 
Giorgio Perlasca dies in Milan, Italy at age 82.
 
Hill of Humanity monument dedicated in honor of Sugihara in his hometown of Yaotsu, Japan.
 
Samuel and Pearl Oliner publish The Altruistic Personality.  This book outlines the psychological and social characteristics of Holocaust rescuers.
 
Sweden asks the US government to tone down its efforts on behalf of the Raoul Wallenberg case.
 
April 1993
George Mandel Mantello dies in Rome at the age of 90.
 
April 27, 1993
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum is formally dedicated by President Bill Clinton and Elie Wiesel.  Many European heads of state are present.
 
1993
The Vatican recognizes the State of Israel.  It exchanges ambassadors with Israel.
 
The Simon Wiesenthal Center opens its Museum of Tolerance in Los Angeles, California.  A major component of this museum is on the Holocaust.
 
French President Francois Mitterand publicly denounces the actions of the French Vichy government during World War II.
 
Steven Spielberg’s film Schindler’s List is released.  This popular motion picture tells the story of a German rescuer during the Holocaust.  This film increases public awareness of rescue during the Holocaust.
 
Turkey and the Holocaust: Turkey’s Role in Rescuing Turkish and European Jewry from Nazi Persecution, 1933-1945, by Stanford J. Shaw, is published.
 
November 1993
A bronze bust of Gilberto Bosques, donated by the exiled Germans and Austrians, was unveiled at the Instituto del Derecho de Asilo y las Libertades Públicas, Museo Casa de Leon Trotsky.  “A Gilberto Bosques Dank an Mexiko, Los Exilados Alemanes y Austriacos.”  [Institute of Asylum Rights and Public Liberties.  Leon Trotsky House Museum.]
 
December 30, 1993
At Jerusalem, signing of an agreement on some basic principles regulating relations between the Holy See and the State of Israel.  The Vatican recognizes the State of Israel.
 
1994
Stephen Spielberg finances and founds the Survivors of the Shoah Visual History Foundation.  In ten years, the project interviews 52,000 Holocaust survivors.  The project raises 120 million dollars.
 
Street in Bern named after Carl Lutz.
 
Visas for Life project to honor Chiune Sugihara is launched in Japan.
 
Former Jewish immigrants return to Mexico City to present Ambassador Bosques, who is 102 years old, with a document of gratitude.  It states: “To Gilberto Bosques, whose human greatness will be present in our hearts forever.”
 
A documentary film entitled “Flucht nach Mexiko: Deutsche im Exil” [Fleeing to Mexico: Germans in Exile] is produced on Gilberto Bosques, documenting his rescue of Jews and other refugees.  It is broadcast in Mexico.
 
April 7, 1994
The Vatican organizes its first memorial to Jewish victims of the Holocaust.  More than 200 Jewish Holocaust survivors are asked to participate in the commemoration.
 
July 16, 1994
France for the first time commemorates wartime deportation and murder of 76,000 French Jews.
 
1995
International Committee for the Red Cross in Geneva apologizes for its passivity and inaction in helping Jews during World War II.
 
In conjunction with the 50th anniversary of the end of World War II, the President of Switzerland, Kaspar Villiger, officially apologizes to the Jewish people for its disastrous refugee policy.
 
The World Jewish Congress, under the leadership of Dr. Israel Singer and Edgar Bronfman, demands that Swiss banks account for Jewish money and assets in World War II accounts.
 
Visas for Life: The Story of Sugihara exhibit and program is launched in the United States.  It is shown in the California State Capitol and at the Simon Wiesenthal Center’s Museum of Tolerance.
 
Ambassador Gilberto Bosques dies in his home in Mexico City.  He is 103 years old.
 
June 1995
Carl Lutz und die Juden von Budapest, by Dr. Theo Tschuy, is published (NZZ Buchverlag, Zurich).  This well-researched biography stimulates interest in Swiss diplomat Carl Lutz.
 
October 1995
Aristides de Sousa Mendes presented with the Gran Cross of the Order of Christ, the highest medal awarded to civilians in Portugal.
 
November 30, 1995
Paul Grüninger acquitted of all charges related to allowing more than 3,600 Jews to enter Switzerland.
 
1996
Visas for Life: The Righteous Diplomats Project premieres exhibit depicting multiple diplomatic rescuers of Jewish refugees during the Holocaust. 
 
The Visas for Life Project edits and publishes Mrs. Sugihara's manuscript, Visas for Life, in English.
 
May 1996
World Jewish Congress and Swiss bankers establish an investigative body to look into confiscation and misappropriation of Jewish funds during and after World War II.
 
1997
Jan Zwartendijk awarded Righteous Among the Nations medal.
 
Angelo Rotta, the Vatican Nuncio in Budapest, is awarded Righteous Among the Nations medal.
 
Visas for Life: The Righteous Diplomats exhibit opens at the Simon Wiesenthal Museum of Tolerance in Los Angeles and at the Holocaust Museum Houston.
 
Book on Ambassador Per Anger, A Quiet Courage: Per Anger, Wallenberg's Co-Liberator of Hungarian Jews, by Elizabeth R. Skoglund, is published.
 
February 20, 1997
The Polish parliament votes to return nationalized Jewish property from the end of World War II.  These include synagogues, schools and cemeteries.
 
February 1997
Monument for Raoul Wallenberg is dedicated in London, England.
 
March 1997
93 million dollars is allocated for the preservation of the Auschwitz-Birkenau site.
 
September 28, 1997
Dr. Feng Shan Ho dies in San Francisco at the age of 96.
 
1998
The term Righteous Gentile is changed to Righteous Among the Nations in Yad Vashem’s publications.
 
Visas for Life project nominates new diplomats for the Righteous Among the Nations program at Yad Vashem.
 
Visas and Virtue, a short theatrical film on Sugihara, is released and wins an Academy Award.
 
Alexander Kasser, Swedish Representative for the Red Cross in Budapest, Hungary, 1944-45, receives the Righteous Among the Nations award.  Kasser passes away shortly thereafter.
 
Peter Zürcher is designated Righteous Among the Nations.
 
Book on Aristides de Sousa Mendes, A Good Man in Evil Times: The Story of Aristides de Sousa Mendes--The Man Who Saved the Lives of Countless Refugees in World War II, by José-Alain Fralon, is published.
 
A major monument honoring Raoul Wallenberg is dedicated in New York City, in front of the United Nations world headquarters.
 
Swiss banks agree to pay Holocaust survivors who lost money in bank accounts.  Six hundred million dollars in reparations will be paid by the Swiss government.
 
March 1998
“We Remember: A Reflection on the Shoah” is issued by the Vatican’s Commission for Religious Relations with the Jews.  This document acknowledges the Catholic Church’s role in antisemitic actions against Jews.
 
April 1998
Visas for Life: The Righteous Diplomats exhibit opens at Yad Vashem in Jerusalem for the 50th anniversary of the founding of the state of Israel, with tour of diplomats’ families.  Israel issues commemorative stamp in honor of Righteous Diplomats.
 
August 1998
Swiss banks agree to pay 1.25 billion dollars to Holocaust victims who had assets in Swiss banks during World War II.
 
November 1998
Visas for Life: The Righteous Diplomats exhibit opens in Bern, Switzerland.  In attendance is the President of Switzerland.
 
1999
Museum of Jewish Heritage opens in New York City.
 
Visas for Life exhibit tours cities throughout Switzerland.
 
Jean-Edouard Friedrich, the International Red Cross representative in Berlin during World War II, is made Righteous Among the Nations by the State of Israel.
 
May 31, 1999
Visas for Life: The Righteous Diplomats exhibit opens in Budapest, Hungary, at the National Library.  Attended by the President of Hungary.
 
October 1999
Diplomat Foley awarded Righteous Among the Nations medal. 
 
Foley: The Spy Who Saved 10,000 Jews, by Michael Smith, is published in England.
 
The Commission for Religious Relations with the Jews and the International Jewish Committee for Interreligious Consultations, under the Vatican’s auspices, announce the creation of the International Catholic-Jewish Historical Commission to review the previously published 11 volumes of material published by the Vatican between 1965 and 1981.  Three Jewish and three Catholic scholars serve on the Commission.
 
November 1999
Dr. Harald Feller, Swiss diplomat in Budapest, receives the Righteous Among the Nations award.
 
January 2000
Visas for Life: The Righteous Diplomats exhibit opens at the International Forum on the Holocaust in Stockholm, Sweden.  This program is attended by 40 heads of state and the exhibit is visited by the King and Queen of Sweden.
 
March 12, 2000
The Day of Pardon of the Holy Year 2000 celebrated in St. Peter’s Basilica. Document, prepared by the International Theological Commission. (7 March 2000).
 
Pope John Paul II officiates at a special penitential rite asking God’s forgiveness for the sins, past and present, of the Catholic Church.  Among the sins for which he asks pardon are sins against the Jewish people.
 
March 20-26, 2000
Jubilee Pilgrimage of Pope John Paul II to Israel.  He visits Jordan and Israel, meeting with religious and government leaders.  This is the first time that a Pope officially visits Israel and enters through the front door. 
 
March 23, 2000
Pope John Paul II visits Yad Vashem Holocaust Martyrs’ and Heroes’ Remembrance Authority at Har Hazikaron in Jerusalem.  This is the center of the Jewish people for Holocaust commemoration.  In the Hall of Remembrance, the pontiff delivers speech… “the heart feels an extreme need for silence.”  He visits with six Holocaust survivors, including one he helped save at the end of the war.  The Pope visits the Western Wall and places a note in the wall asking the Jewish people for forgiveness.
 
April 2000
Visas for Life: The Righteous Diplomats exhibit opens at the United Nations headquarters in New York City.  Opening program is held in the hall of the General Assembly.
 
May 2000
Visas for Life exhibit opens at the national convention of the American Jewish Committee.  Dinner attended by U.S. Secretary of State, the Prime Minister of Sweden and the President of Germany.
 
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, D.C., dedicates exhibit honoring diplomats Sugihara and Zwartendijk, called Flight and Rescue.
 
July 2000
Visas for Life: The Righteous Diplomats exhibit opens at the United Nations European headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland.  Exhibit is sponsored by the Secretary General and the Chief of Protocol, Mehmet Ülkümen.
 
July 7, 2000
Israel designates Dr. Feng Shan Ho with Righteous Among the Nations status.
 
September 3, 2000
Pope John Paul II beatifies (declares “blessed”) Pope John XXIII (Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli).  Roncalli was the Papal Nuncio in Turkey who saved 24,000 Jews.  The Visas for Life Project supports the beatification.
 
September 2000
Ambassador Per Anger becomes honorary citizen of the state of Israel.
 
The Portuguese Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Diplomatic Institute, publishes Spared Lives: The Actions of Three Portuguese Diplomats in World War II.
 
Japanese foreign ministry dedicates memorial to Sugihara in its headquarters.  Ministry formally apologizes to Mrs. Sugihara for not recognizing Sugihara’s work earlier.
 
Film Sugihara: Conspiracy of Kindness wins prestigious Independent Documentary Association award and first place in Hollywood Film Festival.
 
November 2000
Documentary film on diplomatic rescue, Diplomats for the Damned, premieres at the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences Theater.  Film is distributed along with student guide to schools and airs on the History Channel.
 
December 29, 2000
L’Osservatore Romano, the Vatican’s official newspaper, publishes “The Legacy of Abraham, Gift of Christmas.”  It is written by Cardinal Ratzinger, who writes about the Holocaust: “…it cannot be denied that a certain measure of insufficient resistance to these atrocities on the part of Christians is explained by the anti-Jewish legacy present in the souls of no small number of Christians.”
 
2000
Ernst Vonrufs is awarded the Righteous Among the Nations status by Yad Vashem.
 
Visas for Life exhibit and speaker’s program participates in more than 100 programs since its inception in 1994.
 
Polish diplomat Jan Karski, who warned the western world of the Holocaust, passes away.
 
Book on Carl Lutz, Dangerous Diplomacy: The Story of Carl Lutz, Rescuer of 62,000 Hungarian Jews, by Dr. Theo Tschuy, is published.
 
The Man Who Stopped the Trains to Auschwitz: George Mantello, El Salvador, and Switzerland’s Finest Hour, by David Kranzler, is published.
 
Book on Spanish diplomat Don Angel Sanz-Briz, Un Español Frente al Holocausto, by Diego Carcedo, is published.
 
Children's book on Chiune Sugihara, A Special Fate: Chiune Sugihara: Hero of the Holocaust, written by Alison Leslie Gold, is published.
 
2001
Howard Elting, Sr., US Consul in Bern, Switzerland, who passed on the Auschwitz Report to the State Department with an endorsement of credibility, passes away.
 
Portuguese government obtains the old Aristides de Sousa Mendes estate in Cabanas de Viriato, begins raising money for its restoration as a tribute to his rescue work.
 
Portuguese President Mario Soares apologizes to the Portuguese Jewish community for the injustices of the Portuguese Inquisition in 1496.  He does this in conjunction with honoring de Sousa Mendes.
 
An official Russian Working Group issues report acknowledging the possibility of Raoul Wallenberg’s death in 1947.  It stresses that current evidence does not exclude the possibility of Wallenberg having lived some time beyond 1947.
 
January 2001
Swedish Prime Minister Göran Persson formally apologizes to Raoul Wallenberg’s family for the country’s handling of his case.
 
August 2001
Monument dedicated to Raoul Wallenberg is unveiled in Stockholm, Sweden.
 
September 2001
Visas for Life exhibit opens at the Memorial du Martyr Juif Inconnu at the Centre de Documentation Juive Contemporaine in Paris, France.  Exhibit opening ceremony takes place at the Hotel de Ville (City Hall) of Paris.  Opening is attended by the Mayor of Paris and members of the Rothschild family.
 
Dr. Feng Shan Ho commemorated on the 100th anniversary of his birth in his hometown of Yiyang, China.  As part of the commemoration, an extensive exhibit on Dr. Ho is shown in his home province of Hunan, and later tours Beijing, Shanghai and Chengdu.
 
2002
Ambassador Per Anger, Raoul Wallenberg's colleague in Budapest, Hungary, 1944-45, passes away.
 
Consul General Necdet Kent, Turkish Consul in Paris who saved Jews, passes away.
 
Luiz Martins de Souza Dantas, the Brazilian Ambassador to France in 1940-1943, is designation Righteous Among the Nations by the State of Israel.
 
Visas for Life Project has documented over 100 diplomats from 27 countries.
 
Pope John XXIII, written by Thomas Cahill, is published.  Extensive references about his rescue of Eastern European Jews are presented in the book.
 
Becsület és batorsag: Carl Lutz és a budapesti zsidok (Honour and Courage: Carl Lutz and the Budapest Jews), by Dr. Theo Tschuy, is published in Hungary.
 
The Visas for Life Project sponsors commemorative medals honoring Raoul Wallenberg and Carl Lutz.  These medals are issued by the Israeli State Coins and Medals.
 
April 2002
Visas for Life exhibit opens at the London Jewish Cultural Centre.  Many European ambassadors are in attendance.  Several new European diplomatic rescuers are discovered.
 
June 2002
Colin Powell, US Secretary of State, honors Harry Bingham in a special ceremony at the US State Department.  Bingham receives Courageous Diplomat award posthumously.
 
August 4, 2002
Raoul Wallenberg’s 90th birthday is celebrated.  Renewed interest in his rescue story is generated.
 
December 2002
Sugihara memorial statue is dedicated in Los Angeles.
 
March 2003
The first independent, non-governmental commission on the Raoul Wallenberg case presents its findings in Stockholm, Sweden.  Headed by Ingemar Eliasson, the commission examined the Swedish political leadership’s action in regard to Raoul Wallenberg, 1945-2001.  The commission concludes that the Swedish government mishandled the Wallenberg case through its lack of initiative during the early years, 1945-1947.
 
June 4, 2003
A street in Vienna is named for Gilberto Bosques.
 
June 7, 2003
Turkish diplomat Selahattin Ülkümen passes away in Istanbul, Turkey.
 
2003
Visas for Life exhibit tours in South Africa to the communities of Cape Town, Johannesburg and Durban.
 
The Visas for Life Project sponsors a commemorative medal, issued by the Israeli State Mint, honoring Chiune Sugihara.
 
The Visas for Life Project nominates 50 Italian diplomats, soldiers and policemen, representing the occupied zones of Yugoslavia, Athens and southern France, for the Righteous Among the Nations Award of Yad Vashem.
 
US Postal Service announces it will issue a commemorative stamp honoring Hiram “Harry” Bingham IV.
 
The book The Righteous, by Martin Gilbert, is published.
 
September 7, 2003
Visas for Life exhibit opens at the City Hall in Vienna, Austria.
 
October 2003
Visas for Life exhibit shows in the rotunda of the Russell Senate Office Building, Washington, DC, sponsored by Congressman Tom Lantos and Senator Charles Schumer.
 
Visas for Life families meet with US Secretary of State Colin Powell.
 
December 2003
Visas for Life exhibit opens in Miami, Florida.
 
2004
Visas for Life Project nominates Vatican diplomat Gennaro Verolino to be declared Righteous Among the Nations.
 
Gennaro Verolino receives the Per Anger prize.  At 99 years old he is the only surviving diplomat.
 
February 2004
Visas for Life exhibit opens at Binyaneh Ha’oomah, Jerusalem, Israel.  This is in conjunction with an international conference of the American Jewish Committee.
 
September 2004
Visas for Life Project has program in Washington, DC, and New York City to honor diplomats who saved Jews in Budapest, Hungary, 1944-45.
 
March 2005
Yad Vashem honors Hiram “Harry” Bingham IV with a letter of commendation in appreciation for “facilitating the immigration of Jewish persons from France during 1940-1941.”
 
April 2005
Yad Vashem opens its new museum, making it the largest installation on the Holocaust in the world.
 
Visas for Life exhibit opens in Montreal, Canada, and has a one-year tour.  The exhibit also opens at the Cleveland Public Library.
 
May 2005
Visas for Life documents 300 diplomats who helped or saved Jews.
 
Exhibit is opened honoring Swiss diplomat Carl Lutz in the former Glass House on Vadasz Utca.
 
September 19, 2005
Simon Wiesenthal dies at his home in Vienna at the age of 96.  He is buried in Israel.
 
October 17, 2005
Plaque is placed at the Carl Lutz monument, in the old Pest Ghetto, in Budapest.  Agnes Hirschi, daughter of Carl Lutz, is in attendance.
 
November 17, 2005
Cardinal Gennaro Verolino passes away at his home in Rome.  He is 99 years old.  He is the last living diplomat who rescued Jews during the war.
 
April 2006
US Postal Service will officially issue series of stamps honoring US diplomats.  Hiram Bingham stamp will be issued at a stamp convention at the Washington, DC, Convention Center.
 
The Red Cross Tracing Services archives at Bad Arolson, Germany, are opened for the first time for public viewing.

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